Need a piece of lumber? In most of the United States, you get one from your local lumber yard or “big box” store and do not have a choice as to whether the lumber is “green” (moisture content of over 19%) or dry. For the most part, what is available at the retail level is a regional dictate.
Historically, the green vs. dry battle has been a point of contention.
A great deal of attention was given at the Forest Products Laboratory in 1946 to problems arising from the use of green lumber in building construction. Sharp controversy developed between the Laboratory and that portion of the lumber industry which customarily manufactured and shipped unseasoned (green) lumber.
The statement, since widely quoted, “we still have not learned how to build good houses of unseasoned lumber” was made in a Laboratory report which was later withdrawn. An extensive “Program to Reduce Use of Green Lumber in Housing” was planned at the Laboratory, but never implemented. Although size standards were not a major part of the controversy, shrinkage in service was given as the principal drawback to the use of green construction lumber, thus emphasizing the relation of size to moisture content.
At about the same time was the case of the home owner in Virginia who sued for damages resulting from the use of green lumber in building his house. The court awarded him some $8,000 damages, but the award was set aside on appeal to a higher court.
There was also sharp controversy about whether or not building codes could legally set maximum moisture content values in lumber used in building construction. The argument was advanced that health and safety do not require dry lumber, and the building law could not go beyond health and safety requirements.
You may ask… why is green lumber even used? It is less expensive to produce green lumber than dry. Green lumber is softer than seasoned wood, it can be cut more easily, is not as likely to split and nails drive into it more easily.
A number of problems can result from the use of green lumber. Nail “pops” – as framing members dry and shrink, gaps are created between nailed together framing members, as well as between exterior or interior sheathing and framing members. Mold can begin to grow on green lumber before it is even used in construction. Airborne mold spores are found almost everywhere, and they can easily cause mold growth on wet wood surfaces.
In exposed areas, green lumber can be difficult to paint or stain, sap within the wood oozes out and causes discoloration and gaps between members (such as fascias) can result.
As it dries, wood shrinks considerably, and is prone to both “warp” and “check” (crack). Used in construction, problems may arise including warping the underlying structure and causing structural instability. Unlike lumber which has been dried at the mill, green lumber has not been treated with any substances which are designed to promote water and insect resistance. Green lumber is more subject to rot, and it can be viewed as a buffet by insects.
More often than not, the use of green lumber for framing material comes from lack of knowledge by the end user. For buildings where the finished quality makes a difference, dry lumber is the only sensible choice.
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It’s good to know more about what type of lumber is used. It does sound like green lumber shouldn’t even be used, although it does have some benefits. So, are homes always made from dried wood, or does it just depend?
Always nice to get a comment from a lumberyard which has been in business for over 50 years! Thank you for being a reader.
There are some markets in which the primary lumber for all purposes is green – Oregon west of the Cascades, most of California, parts of Arizona and New Jersey. With the issues of shrinkage of green lumber, one would think dry lumber would be used everywhere – but it is an economic decision in which pocketing greater profits outweighs the quality of the finished product.
I don’t think it is that “cut and dry.” My understanding is that all homes over 100 years old were built out of green lumber. You cut the trees around you and you built your house. No one kild dried their lumber.
Most “kiln dried” lumbar is not properly dried. Center pieces are much wetter then outer pieces. There is lots of warped wood at the lumber yard that was “kiln dried. ” Warping greatly depends on grain. So care does need to be taken in choosing your pieces in the most structurally strained areas.
Where I would want dried wood is where you are concerned about laps and gaps, like flooring or siding on internal walls.
One: Our ancestors were patient, they air dried the wood properly, then brought it inside and completed the drying. This took a couple of years, but it worked fine.
Two: Houses were not centrally heated or air conditioned, therefore wood didn’t need to be as dry as it does in many modern homes.
Can you provide verifiable sources for your statement of “most kiln dried lumber is not properly dried”?
What can you use to treat green lumber for framing a new home and the difacultly level
There is no “treatment” best mode is to get the building weather sealed and then let it dry out until moisture content of the lumber is below 19%. Depending upon your climate and how wet the lumber is when put into place, it could take as long as 12 months.
Can I use green rough cut lumber to make a gazebo and just spray it down with a wood sealer after I’m done construction?
Can you and should you are two different things. Professionally I could never recommend the use of green lumber for any structural application.
We have a green lumber patio table top. Is it safe to eat on that wood? What if a piece of food goes on the table and the children just pick it up and put it in their mouth.
OR IS THE MATERIAL USED POISONOUS?
If “green” means not kiln dried, then it is perfectly safe. If “green” means it is pressure preservative treated, then no.
What does the moisture content need to be in wood before it is considered dry lumber? Before it would be considered safe to build with.
Lumber at 19% or lower moisture content is considered to be dry.
I run a panel production company in Reno Nevada. I have been offered a really good price on precut studs, but they are green. we have a very dry climate here. most of our building are specifying dry(19%). it is offered to use at 24%. how long do you think it would take here in Nevada to get that content down to the 19% mark?our average humidity for the year hovers around 40%. From March to October it is around 30%. Any answers?
While I have no idea on dry times, your challenge is going to be the lumber grade stamps are S-GRN and your specifiers are going to want to see S-DRY or KD. Chances are you will get gigged right away and if someone starts stabbing each stud with a moisture meter they are going to find one or more that are nonconforming and you will end up eating an order. IMHO it is just not worth the risk.
With 8/4 X 8, 10, 12″. Double T&G. Better to install vertically or horizontally ?
We would need to know far more about its application – what is supporting it and what does it support? Is it for a wall or rough application?
I want to build a post and beam out of green lumber. Rest out of kill dryed? Or just do whole thing out of green and use reg siding?? Suggestions???
You will be far and away happiest with your results if you use all dry lumber.
Green lumber is not a material for everyone. If you have to ask i would say skip it. But one thing is absolutely for sure is the bias against green lumber.
Many things to consider is the species. Store bought lumber is the Normal but there are significant advantages to using green lumber. Cost drives most of what we do but not only can the cost be reigned in but gaining some knowledge about your materials is by far the most valuable piece of advice I would give to any that are interested. So it can be properly used. If you build a structure with green lumber dont plan on finishing the interior for at least a year. For most that would use it that isnt a problem as they are probably doing most of it themselves. I have been in the construction trades for 24 yrs. Also I had an HVAC business so yes moisture is practically the biggest issue to deal with. Shrinkage being next. Other than that I f you have good timber to cut why throw your money away? I v e never nver had a problem using green lumber, just take it into account with its needs and all would be good…
If you have good standing trees to cut – you would be better off to sell it to a lumber mill. Non-graded lumber cannot be used by Code. As for moisture content – you would be best to have the green lumber dry to 19% moisture content or less prior to installation, rather than deal with effects of shrinkage after assembly.
I am planning to build a pergola using a purchased grid system. The ends of the posts (4”x4s”) and cross beams slip into metal corners to create the framework. Because of this, it is important that the wood be dry to avoid shrinkage. The grid manufacturer recommends western red cedar. Must wood be “kiln dried” to be dry enough? Another site says, “All the wood you buy at your local home center will be dried lumber,” claiming the wood has been stored up to 18 months. I have cobbled together a few projects (raised garden beds, for example) but I am not a DIYer by any means. Still, that statement about wood from the local home center doesn’t seem true, as the other comments here seem to suggest. Is S4S (a term new to me, but I think I understand it) or rough more likely to be dry? If the kid at the home center doesn’t know the moisture content, is there a way to find out?
You want wood which is 19% moisture content or less, look for S-Dry or KD on the grade stamps on surfaced (S4S) lumber. All lumber from local home centers and big boxes is not necessarily dry – it will depend upon what part of the country you reside in. Also, right now lumber is being consumed as quickly as it can be milled, so chances of finding any sort of quantity of material that was milled over even 60 days ago is slim. Rough sawn lumber is most often at a higher moisture content than you would want to use.