Tag Archives: nail gun injuries

Nail Gun Do’s and Don’ts

As I mentioned yesterday (in case you missed my post), many a person has purchased a nail gun in eager anticipation of using it to save time and effort in construction of their new pole building.  Inherent in any tool is the “safety first” concerns it brings along with it.

Nail gun work rules and procedures should be developed to address risk factors and make the work as safe as possible. Examples include but are not limited to the following:


Make sure tool manuals for nailers used on the job are always avail­able on jobsite.

Make sure manufacturers’ tool labels and instructions are understood and followed.

Check tools and power sources before operating to make sure they are in proper working order. Take broken or malfunctioning nail guns out of service immediately.

Set up operations so no one is in firing line from nail guns being operated.

Check lumber surfaces before nailing. Look for knots, nails, straps, hangers, etc. which could cause recoil or ricochet.

Use a hammer or positive placement nailer when nailing metal joinery or irregular lumber.

For placement work, keep hands at least 12 inches away from the nailing point at all times. Consider using clamps to brace instead of your hands.

Always shoot nail guns away from your body and away from co-workers.

Always disconnect compressed air when: Leaving a nailer unattended; Travelling up and down a ladder or stairs; Passing nail gun to a co-worker; Clearing jammed nails; Performing any other maintenance on a nail gun.

Recognize the dangers of awkward position work and provide extra time and precautions: Use a hammer if you cannot reach the work while holding nailer with your dominant hand.

Use a hammer or reposition for work at face or head height. Recoil is more difficult to control and could be dangerous.

Use a hammer or full sequential trigger nailer when working in a tight space. Recoil is more difficult to control and double fires could occur with contact triggers.

Take extra care with toe-nailing. Nail guns can slip before or during firing because the gun cannot be held flush against the work piece. Use a nail gun with teeth on the safety contact to bite into the work piece to keep gun from slipping during the shot. Use the trigger to fire only after the safety contact piece is positioned.

Recognize the dangers of nail gun work at height and provide extra time and precautions: Set up jobs to minimize the need for nailing at height.

Consider using scaffolds rather than ladders.

If work must be done on ladders, use full sequential trigger nailers to prevent nail gun injuries which could occur from bumping a leg while climbing up or down a ladder.

Position ladders so you don’t have to reach too far. Your belt buckle should stay between side rails when reaching to the side.

Maintain three contact points with the ladder at all times to prevent a fall—this means clamps may need to be used for placement work. Holding a nailer in one hand and the work piece with the other provides only two contact points (your feet). Reaching and recoil can make you lose your balance and fall. Falls, especially with contact trigger nailers, can result in nail gun injuries.


Never bypass or disable nail gun safety features. Tampering includes removing spring from the safety-contact tip and/or tying down, taping or otherwise securing trigger so it does not need to be pressed. Tampering increases the chance nail gun will fire unintentionally both for the current user and anyone else who may use the nail gun. There is NO legitimate reason to modify or disable a nail gun safety device!

Keep fingers off trigger when holding or carrying a nail gun. If this is not natural, use a full sequential nail gun or set down the nailer until beginning to nail again.

Never lower nail gun from above or drag the tool by the hose. If nail-gun hose gets caught on something, don’t pull on hose. Go find the problem and release the hose.

Never use a nailer with the non-dominant hand.

Properly used, a nail gun can safely speed up your new pole building’s construction. And, it is a great gift for the Do-It-Yourselfer on your list.  Print two copies of my list of Do’s and Don’ts and include one with the nailer gift, and hang the other near where your own nailer is stored – taped to the storage box or cupboard door. I know at Hansen Buildings, all equipment and tools operators are required to read safety rules and “sign off” before they are allowed to use them. Don’t you want the same basic nail gun safety measures followed for your loved ones?

Nail Gun Safety

Over the years, I have talked with many do-it-yourself building owners who have used their new pole building kit as a reason to justify a new nail gun purchase.

Nail guns are powerful, easy to operate, and boost productivity for nailing tasks. They are also responsible for an estimated 37,000 emergency room visits each year. Severe nail gun injuries have led to construction worker deaths.

Nail gun injuries are common in construction. How likely are nail gun injuries? In an apprentice carpenter study two out of five were injured using a nail gun, during four years training.

More than half of reported nail gun injuries are to hand and fingers. Serious nail gun injuries to spinal cord, head, neck, eye, internal organs, and bones have been reported. Injuries have resulted in paralysis, blindness, brain damage, bone fractures, and death.

There are seven major risk factors which can lead to a nail gun injury. Under­standing them and insisting upon nail gun safety measures will help you to prevent injuries on your jobsites.

Contact trig­ger nailers are susceptible to double firing, especially when trying to accurately place nailer against the work piece. A second unintended firing can happen faster than the user is able to react and release trigger. Unintended nails can cause injuries.

Double fire can be a particular problem for new users who may push hard on the tool to compensate for recoil. It can also occur when a user is work­ing in an awkward position, such as in tight spaces where the gun doesn’t have enough space to recoil. Gun recoil itself can even cause a non-nail injury in tight spaces if the nail gun hits the user’s head or face.

Nail guns with contact and single actuation triggers will fire if the trigger is being held squeezed and safety contact tip gets knocked or pushed into an object or person by mistake. For example, a user might knock his leg going down a ladder or bump into a co-worker passing through a doorway. Contact trigger nailers can release multiple nails and single actuation trigger nailers can release a single nail to cause injury.

Holding or carrying contact trigger or single actuation trigger nail guns with the trigger squeezed increases unintended nail discharge risk. Construc­tion workers tend to keep a finger on the trigger because it is more natural to hold and carry an 8-pound nail gun using a full, four-finger grip. Tool manu­facturers, however, do warn against it.

Nails can pass through a work piece and either hit the worker’s hand or fly off as a projectile. A blow-out nail is one example. Blow-outs can occur when a nail is placed near a wood knot. Knots involve a change in wood grain, which creates both weak spots and hard spots which can make a nail change direction and exit the work piece. Nail penetration is especially a concern for placement work where a board needs to be held in place by hand. If the nail misses or breaks through the lumber it can injure the non-dominant hand holding it.

When a nail hits a hard surface, it has to change direction and it can bounce off the surface, becoming a projectile. Wood knots and metal framing hardware are common ricochet causes. Problems have also been noted with ricochets when nailing into dense laminated beams. Ricochet nails can strike the worker or a co-worker to cause an injury.

Injuries may occur when the nail gun tip does not make full contact with the work piece and the discharged nail becomes airborne. This can occur when nailing near the work piece edge, such as a plate. Positioning the safety contact tip is more difficult in these situations and sometimes the fired nail com­pletely misses the lumber. Injuries have also occurred when a nail shot through plywood or oriented strand board sheeting missed a stud and became airborne.

Nailing in awkward positions where the tool and its recoil are more difficult to control may increase injury risk. These include toe-nailing, nailing above shoulder height, nailing in tight quarters, holding the nail gun with the non-dominant hand, nailing while on a ladder, or nailing when the user’s body is in the firing line (nailing towards you). Toe-nailing is awkward because the gun cannot be held flush against the work piece. Nailing from a ladder makes it difficult to position nail gun accurately. Nailing beyond a comfortable reach distance from a ladder, elevated work platform, or leading edge also places user at risk for a fall.

Bypassing or disabling certain features of either the trigger or safety contact tip is an injury risk. For example, removing the spring from the safety contact tip makes an unintended discharge even more likely. Modify­ing tools can lead to safety problems for anyone who uses the nail gun. Nail gun manufacturers strongly recommend against bypassing safety features.

Nail gun safety work rules and procedures should be developed to address risk factors and make the work as safe as possible  Tomorrow I’ll share my list of basic do’s and don’ts for using a nail gun.